Synthesize knowledge of Covid-19 and effective prevention

Author MonaMask

December 4, 2020

Covid-19 Short for Coronavirus disease 2019- coronavirus 2019. This is a disease caused by the SARS virus – CoV – 2. This virus first appeared in late 2019, in China and until now. spread all over the world. So what is Covid – 19? The transmission mechanism like? What if you have Covid 19 and how is it effective? All will be in the article below:

Hình ảnh này chưa có thuộc tính alt; tên tệp của nó là covid-e1608686631783.jpg

1. Covid-19 là gì?

 Covid-19 (also known as Corona virus or 2019 – nCoV) is a large family of viruses, several of which are capable of causing disease when transmitted from animals to humans or from person to person. In the past, Covid happened, spreading from wild animals to humans and forming pandemics of the century such as MERS or SARS.

 Covid-19 first appeared in Wuhan, being one of the new strains that never appeared before, together with SAR-CoV and MERS-CoV, 2019 – nCoV has become the most dangerous virus corona strains.

 Most patients with Covid 19 have initial symptoms that are quite similar to the flu. However, there are some people with no symptoms or very mild symptoms that are often easy to ignore. Therefore, to accurately diagnose whether a person has Covid-19 or not, it is necessary to test.

2. What are the symptoms of Covid-19?

The most common Covid-19 symptoms are:

+ Fever

+ Dry cough

+ Tired

Other less common symptoms that still affect the patient include:

+ Loss of taste or smell

+ Stuffy nose

+ Conjunctivitis

+ Sore throat

+ Headache

+ Muscle or joint pain

+ Skin rash of different colors

+ Nausea or vomiting

+ Diarrhea

+ A feeling of chills or dizziness

Severe Covid-19 symptoms include:

+ Bounce

+ Not good at all

+ Confusion

+ Pain in the chest or feeling something is pressed against the chest

+ Number higher than 38 degrees C

Depending on the resistance of each person, the symptoms that occur are different. The patient’s body now has the virus, but they have no clear signs, only when onset, when the human body is attacked, Covid-19 can cause fever, causing damage to the respiratory tract. In the most severe cases, death will result, especially in cases where the underlying disease already exists.

3. How is Covid-19 contagious?

According to many published studies, Covid-19 is transmitted by the main mechanism of droplets shot from the sneezing and coughing of an infected person. According to the transmission mechanism of the disease, the scientists divided the droplets into two categories based on their size. Include:

+ Group of aerosols (with size <10 micrometres, ie less than half of the diameter of hair) These are tiny droplets that float in the air and can easily pass through gaps.

+ Larger droplets range in size from 10 micrometres – 100 micrometres, they are called “sprays.” These droplets are quite large and can be seen with the naked eye when coughing or sneezing.

According to a report by Dr. Yuguo Li (University of Hong Kong), droplets with sizes from 0.1 micrometer can evaporate or fall to the surface within 2m, depending on the size, humidity of the air and temperature. The droplets will be like “bullets” flying at a speed of 50 m / s (for a sneeze) and about 10m / s (for a cough). This enables them to fly to a maximum distance of 6 meters. Hence, the distance we think “absolutely safe” of 2 meters is still not enough to protect us from Covid-19 infection.

Droplets or droplets after passing through the nose or mouth will go down to the alveoli – where gas exchange occurs. To go deep into this area, dust or droplets must be less than 10 micrometers in diameter. Conversely, large droplets will get stuck in the nose and throat, the air ducts above the lungs, trachea, and large bronchi.

4. How does Covid-19 work when entering a human body?

Covid-19 has an outward appearance like a crown, the innermost part of Covid’s construction is a spiral-shaped ARN code. This code contains all the material and genetic information of the virus to make it possible to make millions of Covid-19 copies. Surrounding the ARN code is a layer of functional fat, and outside of that layer of fat are layers of spiral proteins. They call it protein spikes.

Những bậc cấu trúc của các loại ARN. Từ trên xuống dưới: bậc I (primary), bậc II, bậc III và bậc IV.

As a person coughs or sneezes more, the virus in the droplet travels to your nose or mouth and then deep into the body and reaches the cells in the lining of the nose, throat and lungs. One of the protein spikes in Covid-19’s body will reach and plug directly into the receptor on a healthy cell. This process will help Covid virus to penetrate deeply into the cell.

Unlike seasonal influenza virus, Covid-19 does not need to enter the host cell, but directly affects the Ribosome – a part of the cell that automatically produces components according to the information available in ARN, for example. for example, protein spikes. Then another organ will actively transport them to the cell membrane. Thus, all that is needed to create a new virus is prepared and concentrated right under the cell membrane. Eventually new viruses will be created. This process takes place very quickly, within just a few hours, the amount of virus in the body will increase exponentially.

5. How long does it take to develop Covid-19 symptoms?

The time from exposure to Covid-19 to the onset of symptoms is 5-6 days and can be 1 – 14 days. This is also the reason why people exposed to the pathogen are advised to stay home for 14 days to prevent the spread of the virus, especially in places where testing is not easy.

6. What happens to people who are seriously ill?

Up to 80% of people can recover on their own without hospital treatment. 20% of people infected with Covid-19 are severely affected and need oxygen, of which 5% need special care.

The fatal complications of Covid-19 infection include respiratory failure, acute respiratory failure (ARDS), sepsis and septic shock, thromboembolism, multiorgan failure, and heart, liver, or kidney damage.

In rare cases, children suffer severe respiratory damage after several weeks of infection.

7. Who is at risk of becoming seriously ill from Covid-19 infection?

Anyone of any age is at risk of becoming seriously ill from Covid-19 infection, however most are concentrated in people 60 years of age and older and those with underlying medical conditions such as high blood pressure, heart disease, lung disease, etc. diabetes, obesity, cancer.

8. What should i do if there are signs of Covid-19?

+ If you have any symptoms related to Covid-19, contact your healthcare provider or the Covid-19 hotline for instructions on when and where to get tested.

+ Follow the 14-day quarantine rule to limit infection and monitor your health.

+ If you have difficulty breathing or chest pain, get medical attention right away.

+ If you live in an area with malaria or dengue fever, seek medical attention if you have a fever.

+ Keep a distance of at least 1 meter from others, avoiding touching surfaces with your hands.

9. When should you get the Covid-19 test?

+ Anyone who has symptoms should get tested whenever possible.

+ People who have no symptoms but have been in contact with someone who is or may be infected should also be tested to see if they have had Covid-19.

+ While a person is waiting for the test result should be quarantined from the others. When testing is limited, testing should be given to people at higher risk of infection, such as healthcare workers, people at risk of serious illness, the elderly, children, people live in the elderly’s home or in a long-term care facility.

10. What tests should be done to find out if I have Covid-19 infection?

In most situations a molecular test is used to detect Covid-19 virus. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the most common molecular test. The sample will be collected from the nose or throat with a cotton swab and detect the virus in the sample by amplifying the genetic material. Molecular tests are used to confirm an active infection, usually days after exposure to a pathogen or when symptoms may begin.

The rapid test (also known as the rapid diagnostic test – RDT) detects the proteins of the virus (Antigens). The sample is collected from the nose or throat using a cotton swab. The RDT test is quicker but less accurate.

11. What is the procedure for taking a Covid-19 test sample?

Given the rapidly spreading nature of the disease, it is essential to promote screening by rapid testing or detection of the pathogen. The process of sampling for Covid-19 assay is performed in 5 basic steps:

Step 1: Prepare before sampling. The staff performing patient sampling should ensure certain rules with the health sector include:

+ Wear protective and quality protective clothing

+ Wear N95 mask, helmet, goggles, face shield

+ Wear 2 layers of medical gloves

+ Perform sterilization without taking protective gear from the sampling area.

Step 2: Sampling the patient. This is done by medical staff.

+ Take 3 – 5 ml of blood into the EDTA anticoagulant tube

+ Use a sampling rod to perform sampling of the upper and lower respiratory tract fluid.

+ Upper respiratory tract fluid includes pharyngeal fluid, pharyngeal fluid, throat rinse.

+ Upper respiratory tract fluid includes pharyngeal fluid, pharyngeal fluid, throat rinse….

+ Put the 2 sample strips together in the same tube of available virus transport medium.

Step 3: Preserve the sample. Once the specimens are collected, they will be transported to the laboratory as soon as possible.

+ Samples should be stored at 2 – 8 degrees C and transported to the laboratory 48 hours in advance (From the time of sampling).

+ Specimens should be stored at -70 ° C if expected transit time exceeds 48 hours.

+ Do not store samples at – 20 ° C or in the refrigerator freezer

+ Whole blood samples can be left for up to 5 days at 2-8 degrees Celsius.

Step 4: Pack and transport the sample to the laboratory

+ Tighten patient type cap and cover with paraffin paper, each type will be wrapped with absorbent paper.

+ Put the sample in the sample shipping bag

+ Cover the shipping bag with a cotton or absorbent cotton ball that contains a disinfectant. Then put the swab in the second plastic bag and tie it tightly.

+ Put the specimens of specimens in the last plastic bag, tie them tightly, then transfer to a cold thermos flask, the outside is marked with the bio-specimen logo and transport to the laboratory.

Step 5: Perform screening tests and detect Covid-19 virus in the laboratory. These tests include: Molecular biology test, immunology test, rapid antibody – antigen test.

12. Has the Covid-19 vaccine been found?

Up to now, thousands of people have died from Covid-19, so vaccine production is being accelerated. From the experience of studying other Corona virus strains, scientists believe that people who have been cured from Covid-19 infection will not be re-infected for a period of time. But this hypothesis has no scientific evidence.

The basic principle of human vaccination is to weaken all or part of the virus. The vaccine will gradually accustom the body to the viruses and eliminate them, but are still strong enough to stimulate an immune response. In a few weeks, the cells of the immune system produce antibodies. These antibodies will directly attach to the virus and prevent them from attaching to the body’s cells. The immune system will quickly respond to the antibody’s signal by capturing and destroying the viral mass. If Covid 19 later continued its attack, the body would recognize them and destroy them. In other words, the immune system is trained to fight the virus.

According to experts, the preparation of a vaccine will take about 12-18 months, some longer, and some types can not find treatment.

Recently, Russia announced that it had successfully studied the Covid-19 vaccine and was licensed for production between August 2020. However, the Russian vaccine caused various controversies, with a sample of only 38. This is a small amount to be able to evaluate the effectiveness of the vaccine.

Not only Russia, the United States has also developed a human-tested vaccine with relatively good results. The vaccine injected into volunteers causes their bodies to produce more antibodies. In 45 people tested, there were 3 people carrying Covid-19 symptoms, but only 1-2 days later, signs of infection disappeared completely. In the near future, the US will test on a large scale with 30,000 people.

UK is also a country involved in the production of vaccines against Corona virus. They have made a very potent vaccine, tested on 1,000 people, and almost safe. Antibodies and white blood cells are stimulated to produce more, with no side effects. Some people have a history of headaches but the vaccination should not be a problem.

Currently, there are about 150 organizations in the world participating in the research of Covid-19 vaccines. We have enough basis to believe that the world will develop a vaccine to completely protect against Covid-19.

13. Is there any treatment for Covid-19?

Scientists around the world are working hard to find and develop treatments for Covid-19. WHO trial results have shown that the regimen of remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir / ritonavir and interfero has no or no effect on 28-day mortality or Covid-19 admission in critically ill patients.

In addition, Hydroxychloroquine has not been shown to provide any benefit for Covid-19 treatment. WHO recommends not self-discontinuation of drugs, including antibiotics, for the prevention or treatment of Covid-19. WHO is working with various organizations to find Covid treatments and will continue to update new information.

14. Are antibiotics effective in the prevention or treatment of Covid-19?

Antibiotics do not fight viruses, they are only effective against bacterial infections. Covid-19 is caused by a virus, so antibiotics are ineffective. Therefore, antibiotics should not be used as the remedy for Covid-19.

In the hospital, doctors can use antibiotics to prevent or treat secondary infections or complications of Covid in seriously ill patients. They should be used only as directed by a doctor to treat bacterial infections.

15. What should be done to prevent Covid-19 effectively?

Covid-19 will likely continue to grow if the individual has no awareness of preventing the virus. Here are some WHO recommendations that you should follow.

15.1. What must be done to keep myself and those around me safe from Covid-19?

– Maintain a distance of at least 1 meter between you and others to reduce the risk of infection when you cough, sneeze or talk.

– Maintain wearing a mask when you come into contact with others, which is especially important when you are in a crowded and poorly ventilated area. You should wear a medical mask, a special mask if you:

+ Over age 60

+ There are underlying medical conditions

+ You are not feeling well or are taking care of an sick family member.

+ Work in hospitals or other medical facilities. For these people, use the N95 and N99 standard specialized respirators. In addition, the mask should be worn with the right size, stick to the face, avoid the virus from getting inside.

15.2. How to make your living environment safer?

– Covid-19 outbreaks usually take place at restaurants, bars, restaurants, gyms … These are often places with crowded spaces, close distance between people. Therefore, to minimize your risk of getting Covid-19, it is best not to visit the places listed above.

– If you must go to a crowded place, open a window and wear a mask while indoors. This also helps you to limit the infection of Corona.

– Wash your hands often with an alcohol solution.

– Avoid touching your eyes, nose or mouth with your hands.

– Cover your mouth and nose with your elbow or tissue as you cough and sneeze. Then immediately dispose of used tissues in a sealed container and wash your hands.

– Regularly clean and disinfect the surfaces of frequently used objects, especially the frequently-touched surfaces such as door handles, faucets, phone screens, public elevator buttons …

15.3. What to do if you don’t feel well?

– Know the symptoms of Covid-19. The most common symptoms of Covid-19 are fever, restlessness, fatigue, and body aches. Others have other symptoms such as loss of taste, smell, headache, sore throat, stuffy nose, red eyes, diarrhea or a skin rash.

– Stay home and quarantine yourself when you have any of the above symptoms until you get better. If you need to leave the house or have someone nearby, wear a medical mask to avoid infecting others.

– If high fever, cough, difficulty breathing, seek medical attention immediately.

– Keep up to date with the latest Covid-19 information from reliable sources.

Above are the most basic and detailed information about Covid-19 that you can refer to. Hopefully this article has given you the most useful information, helping you to have a better view of current Covid-19 translation. If you still have any questions, please contact us immediately to learn more.


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