Synthesize certain international anti-fine dust standards
December 4, 2020
Each mask is designed according to a certain standard, used in environments with different concentrations of smoke, dust and bacteria. Understanding the characteristics and nature of each standard will help the company choose the best protection products, suitable to the needs of each business and individual. The following article will help you better understand some of the international dust mask standards. Do not ignore you!
1.What is the NIOSH standard?
1.1 General information
+ Country: USA
+ Is the National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety – The US federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations to prevent work-related illness injuries.
+ NIOSH is part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) under the US Department of Health and Human Services.
+ The director of NIOSH is John Howard
+ NIOSH is headquartered in Washington, D.C with research laboratories and offices in Cincinnati, Ohio; Morgantown, West Virginia; City of Pittsburgh, State of Pennsylvania; Denver, Colorado; Anchorage, Alaska; Spokane, Washington; and Atlanta, Georgia.
+ NIOSH is a professional organization with a team of 1,200 people representing many fields including epidemiology, medicine, industrial hygiene, psychology, engineering, chemistry and statistics.
+ The Occupational Health and Safety Act was signed by President Richard M Nixon on December 29, 1970, creating NIOSH and the Occupational Health and Safety Agency (OSHA)
+ NIOSH was established with the aim of ensuring safe and healthy working conditions by providing information, research results, education and training in the areas of occupational safety and health.
+ At NIOSH, you will have information to prevent work-related illness, injury, disability, and death by acquiring information, knowledge, conducting scientific research …
In general, NIOSH adheres to a strategic plan to be able to meet the organization’s goals and allocate resources. The overarching goals of NIOSH can be mentioned as follows:
+ Reducing cancer, cardiovascular disease, adverse reproductive outcomes, and chronic diseases
+ Reduce occupational hearing loss
+ Reduce infectious, dermatological diseases
+ Reduce musculoskeletal disorder
+ Reduce respiratory disease
+ Improve workplace safety to reduce injuries
+ Ensuring safe work
1.3. Specifications and standards of NIOSH masks
Standard respirators / masks should have the following technical standards:
+ The name of the approved owner, the name of the manufacturing enterprise, the registered trademark must be recognized by NIOSH. Where applicable, the name of the entity for which the FFR has been individually labeled by the owner, registered trademark, or stands for NIOSH-recognized business owners only.
+ NIOSH in print or NIOSH logo
+ Number of test approvals and NIOSH certifications according to own principles. For example, TC-84A-XXXX
+ NIOSH filter series and filter efficiency levels such as N95, N99, N100, R95, R99, R100.
+ Model or part number: The mask model number or the part number is indicated by a sequence of numbers or alphanumeric characters, such as 8577 or 8577A.
+ NIOSH recommends that the batch number and date of manufacture should be included. However, this is not required.
1.4. NIOSH standard masks
+ N95 respirator: This is the most popular respirator among the 7 PM 2.5 fine dust filters. This product can filter at least 95% of airborne particulates (including 0.3 micrometre fine dust) but cannot withstand oil. There are a number of products that are approved by NIOSH for use in face masks. These products are known as N95 medical masks. Some popular N95 products such as 3M masks, Mona Masks….
+ N99 respirator: A self-contained respirator that filters at least 99% of airborne particles and cannot withstand oil.
+ N100 mask: is a respirator that filters at least 99.97% of airborne particles and also cannot withstand oil.
+ Mask R95: Fine dust filter is capable of filtering 95% of the dust particles in the air and can resist oil.
+ P95 respirator: A respirator that filters at least 95% of airborne particles, has strong oil resistance.
+ P99 respirator: A respirator that filters at least 99% of fine dust particles and has strong oil resistance.
+ P100 mask: is a respirator that can filter at least 99.97% of airborne particles, with strong oil resistance.
2 . AS / NZS standard
2.1. General information
+ The masks meet the dust filter standards of Australia / New Zealand 1716: 2012
2.2. AS / NZS standards
+ P1 AS / NZS Standard: This standard is applied to gas masks to filter mechanically generated particles, for example dust from grinding, sawing, sanding, cutting, drilling …
+ Standard P2 AS / NZS: Grade P2 rated given to respirator for filtering mechanically and thermally generated particles such as welding operations, casting, some infectious aerosols, particulate materials diesel.
3. KN standard
3.1. General information
+ Country: China
+ KN refers to the dust filter function of the mask
+ China’s standardization agency has been issued on respiratory protection – Air filter particulate mask.
+ New mandatory GB 2626-2019 national standard comes into force on July 1, 2020. Included in China’s announcement number 17 on the new 2019 approved national standard. This new standard replaces the previous version, GB 2626-2006.
+ KN mask
+ KP masks
3.3. KN mask
+ Is a gas mask according to KN standards that can filter non-greasy particles such as dust, mist, and microorganisms.
+ Airborne particles are generally considered oil-free.
–> KN90: Filter efficiency ≥90%
–> KN95: Filter efficiency ≥95%
–> KN100: Filtration efficiency ≥99.97%
3.4. KP masks
+ KP masks / masks can be against both oil seeds and oil free
Masks according to KN standards are also divided like the US NIOSH standards: 90%, 95%, 99.97%
KN90 and KN95 masks are used to help reduce exposure to oil-free particles such as contaminated particles.
-> KP90: Filter efficiency ≥90%
-> KP95: Filter efficiency ≥100%
-> KP100: Filter efficiency ≥99.97%
3.5. Distinguish oil-free and oil-free dust types
+ Oil-free particles: are solid, non-greasy particles and liquids. For example: Coal dust, cement dust, acid paint mist.
+ Oil particles: Including oil smoke, oil mist, asphalt smoke, coke oven smoke, diesel engine exhaust gas particles …
4. FFP Standards
4.1. General information
+ Country: Europe
+ FFP (Respirator / Respirator / Respirator) Mask is a certified European Union respirator. FFP masks are effective against airborne particles such as dust particles and various viruses.
+ Standard EN 149 defines 3 effective types: FFP1, FFP2, FFP3
+ FFP standards are evaluated by the dust filter as well as the level of leakage around the edges. This type of mask, unlike surgical masks, protects the wearer from inhaling infectious agents or contaminants in the form of aerosols, splashes or droplets.
4.2. FFP-standard masks
+ FFP1 mask: is a mask that can filter at least in 3 types of standard FFP masks (Nebulizer rate: Minimum 80%; Leak rate: Maximum 22%). The FFP1 respirator is primarily used as a dust mask. Fine dust can cause lung diseases, cardiovascular disease, brain damage … Especially dust from coal, silica, iron ore, zinc, aluminum or cement. Manufacturers use gold elastic bands to determine this type.
+ FFP2 respirator: Provided for protection in various fields such as glass industry, casting, construction, pharmaceutical industry and agriculture (Nebulizer rate: Not less than 94%, Rate Leakage rate: Maximum 8%). This mask is also effective against influenza viruses such as avian influenza, coronavirus-related acute respiratory syndrome, against bacteria, pneumonic plague, tuberculosis. Manufacturers use white or blue elastic band for identification.
+ FFP3 mask: Protect very fine particles such as asbestos and ceramic. It does not protect against gases, especially nitrous oxides (Nebulizer percentage: Not less than 99% for EN 149 – FFP3 and 99.95% for EN 143 – P3; Leakage rate: Dark 2%). Manufacturers use the red elastic band to define this type.
4.3. FFP respirator with EU standard
+ FFP mask is equipped with a breathing valve to improve comfort while breathing
+ Thanks to the breathing valve, less moisture in the exhaled air will condense in the mask, less likely to settle in the filter.
+ For FFP3, the use of valves is appropriate because they have very thick filtration layers, making it difficult to breathe. Therefore, most facemasks are provided with an integrated breathing valve.
4.4. How to use a mask according to FFP standards
+ The mask as tight as possible to the face, a metal tab can adjust the mask to the bridge of the nose.
+ If you have a beard, shave to shorten the elastic band for a small mask size.
+ Helps protect you from infectious diseases. However, it depends on whether you wear the mask correctly and wash your hands frequently and effectively.
+ Wash hands thoroughly before and after wearing the mask
+ Do not touch the mask during the manufacturing process
+ The mask should be replaced when wet, torn or damaged
+ When removing the mask, it should be taken from the back without touching the front of the mask.
4.5. Standard of FFP masks of the EU
FFP masks must meet certain standards. In order to do so, the mask must have EN 149.
EN 149 is a European standard, dating back to 2001, specifying the minimum characteristics of respiratory protective devices. It includes laboratory tests, field tests and certain requirements. Specifically:
+ Actual performance test
+ Leakage: All leakage into the inside and the penetration of filter material
There are a number of European organizations certifying conformity and designating characteristics: INRS APAVE in France; INSPEC in UK, FACHAUSSCHUSS in Germany.
Each standard comes from different countries, has different characteristics and properties, but has the same goal as protecting human health, limiting exposure to many fine dust, preventing the possibility of spread. respiratory disease from person to person. Hopefully this article has provided you with more useful information, helping you to be more confident and wiser when choosing a mask for the whole family.